Here’s a primer for United States taxpayers residing abroad:
U.S. citizens must file a tax return. Any U.S. citizen who earns income of any kind is obligated to file a U.S. tax return every year, no matter where he or she resides in the world. Many Americans, living abroad and in the U.S., find it unfair that the United States is the only country that requires citizens to file tax returns whether or not they are earning income on U.S. shores. This is a leading reason why some Americans are renouncing their U.S. citizenship.
How can treaties between the United States and other countries affect the income of foreign nationals in the United States?
Bhutta, a citizen of Pakistan and a foreign medical school graduate, entered the United States in 2009 to participate in an internal medicine residency training program. During the three-year residency training program, for which he received an annual salary, Bhutta treated patients, with supervision; conducted and presented research; and supervised and trained third- and fourth-year medical students. His supervising and training of medical students consisted of having the medical students observe him during “rounds”, preparing the students for monthly examinations, and evaluating the students monthly.